Tabriz is the fifth populous city of Iran and the largest city in the northwest of the country. This city is the center of the East Azerbaijan province is home to 1.7 million residents including Persians Turkish speaking Azeris, Armenians, and Assyrians. The great city of Tabriz has played an important role throughout history and today it is one of the most important economic hubs in Iran with large industries like automobiles, textiles, mechanical tools, petrochemical, cement, etc.
Being located on the route of the ancient Silk Road, Tabriz has always been an important spot in the area. The exact history of Tabriz is not well-documented, but the evidence excavated around the Blue Mosque shows that the earliest civilization in Tabriz dates back to a graveyard dating back to the Bronze Era (1st millennium BC). Also, according to the legends and myths, the legendary Garden of Eden was located near the current city of Tabriz. Historians believe that the great castle of the Assyrians, which was a place for keeping the horses of the Urartus was located in Tabriz in 721-705 BC. Also, this city was the capital of Iran during the reign of Atropat, the governor of Alexander the Great.
When the Arabs invaded Iran, Tabriz was ruined and it was a small village until it got developed and changed to a big city by the Abbasids by the third Hijri century. Tabriz was rebuilt several times in 791 AD, 858 AD, 1041, etc., as it was destroyed by earthquakes, and its zenith was during the Timurid Era when it was chosen as the capital of the Mongol kings (1295-1304) and this golden era got continued until the Safavid Dynasty when it was chosen as the glorious capital of the Safavid kings once again. This city was occupied by the Ottomans several times, therefore the capital was transferred to Qazvin. The earthquake in 1780 caused Tabriz to be abandoned once again and then it got occupied by the Russians in 1826. From 1797 to 1833 Abbas Mirza, the governor of the Azerbaijan region started to develop and modernize Tabriz as a big city. Although this city was occupied again during World War II by the Russians, it is still one of the great economical hubs of the region.
Tabriz is located in East Azerbaijan Province on a plain named Tabriz. This city is located 1367 meters above sea level and is surrounded by mountains like the Sahand Mountain and plains. Tabriz has a steppe and dry climate with warm summers and cold winters, however, this city is considered a cold spot compared with other cities of Iran. During July which is the hottest month of the year in Tabriz, the average temperature is 25.4 °C with a cool breeze at night, while in winter and January the average temperature descends to -8 °C with 320 millimeters (13 inches) precipitation a big part of which falls as snow.
Known as one of the most important trading centers on the ancient Silk Road, the historic Bazaar of Tabriz consists of a series of interconnected, covered, brick structures, buildings, and enclosed spaces for different functions and has been inscribed as a UNESCO heritage on July 2010. This bazaar has been a fantastic place for cultural exchange, especially during the 13th century, when this city was the capital of the Safavid Dynasty and is one of the most amazing bazaars of Iran.
constructed in 1465 by the order of Shah Jahan (the sixth Mongol ruler), the Kaboud Mosque (the Blue Mosque) of Tabriz is a glorious Islamic building known for its blue tilings. Although this mosque was badly damaged by an earthquake and the only place that remained undestroyed was its iwan, it got reconstructed in 1970 and today it is still one of the top mosques in Iran.
The Azerbaijan Museum is a major museum in the city of Tabriz and the second biggest archeological museum in Iran after the National Museum. With its amazing architectural design, this museum houses amazing objects like coins, potteries, and handicrafts from the pre-historic era, ancient times, and Islamic period found in Iran.
El Goli (Shah Goli) is a lush historical garden and a recreational park in Tabriz. El Goli is characterized by the large pond in the middle of the garden and the charming two-story mansion in the middle of the pond. Many of the locals of Tabriz spend their spare time cycling, walking, and socializing in this beautiful garden.
Located 55 km from Tabriz in Osku County, Kandovan is one of the most amazing villages of Iran that should be visited. The rocky Kandovan Village shows the manmade cliff houses dug into the volcanic rocks. What makes Kandovan Village stand out among other rocky villages, is that this village is still inhabited by the locals.
The Armenian Monastic Ensembles includes three Armenian churches: St Stephanus Monastery, St Thaddeus Monastery, and Chapel of Dzordzor which were registered as UNESCO World Heritage Sites. These constructions show the amazing value of the Armenian architectural and ornamental elements which bear testimony to very important interchanges with the other regional cultures, particularly the Byzantine, Orthodox, and Parthians.
This Museum and Qajarid Historical house, where the leaders of the revolution gathered, tells the story of the Iranian Constitutional revolution happened in early 20th century. The city of Tabriz played the most important role in this revolution and you can learn quite a lot about through the documents in this museum.